The first Mass of Thanksgiving on American soil was actually celebrated by the Spanish with the Timucuan Indians from Seloy village in attendance on September 8, in St. The Pilgrimswho sought religious freedom and crossed the Atlantic in the Mayflower inwere treated kindly by the Wampanoag tribe in Massachusetts. Samoset and Squanto showed the Pilgrims how to plant corn, beans, and pumpkins, and where to hunt and fish. William Bradford and the sachem Massasoit made a treaty which they honored as long as both were alive.
In addition, the powerful Iroquois Confederacy began exerting its influence on the region. When Europeans first explored western Virginia in the late s, they discovered few Native Americans. Historian Otis Rice suggests this absence was due to the Five Nations, "which sought domination of the Ohio Valley as part of their effort to control the fur trade with the Dutch, and later the British.
The Confederacy controlled the valley but other tribes were permitted to settle there. For example, a Shawnee village existed at present-day Point Pleasant and a Delaware village flourished at Bulltown in present-day Braxton County well into the s.
InEnglish colonists landed at Jamestown, Virginia. Based on various explorations, the British and French laid claim to the territory comprising present-day West Virginia and Native Americans were forced west.
Many of the tribes were destroyed by constant warfare and catastrophic diseases. At the same time, trade with the Europeans proved a strong attraction, enabling the Indians to acquire valuable new products, such as guns, steel hatchets, cloth, and kettles.
The fur trade in particular made many tribes powerful and more aggressive. The Indian nations successfully played one European power against another.
For instance, the British formed an alliance with the Iroquois Confederacy to cut the French out of the lucrative fur trade.
However, the Six Nations also negotiated treaties and traded with the French. Treaties As part of their negotiations, the British secured three treaties which opened the western Virginia frontier to European settlement: At Lancaster, Virginia negotiators convinced the Six Nations to surrender their land to the "setting sun," which the Confederacy interpreted as the crest of the Alleghenies and the British interpreted as all of western Virginia.
Indians fought among themselves over hunting rights to the territory but the Native American idea of "right" to the land was very different from the legalistic and individual nature of European ownership. John Alexander Williams describes this in his book, West Virginia: A History for Beginners: The Indians had no concept of "private property," as applied to the land.
Only among the Delawares was it customary for families, during certain times of the year, to be assigned specific hunting territories. Apparently this was an unusual practice, not found among other Indians. Certainly, the idea of an individual having exclusive use of a particular piece of land was completely strange to Native Americans.
The Indians practiced communal land ownership. That is, the entire community owned the land upon which it lived. English troops under a young commander, George Washington, were overwhelmed by the French at Fort Necessity, beginning a lengthy war for control of the American colonies.
While the English had made it clear they intended to settle the frontier, the French were more interested in trade. This influenced the Delaware and Shawnee to side with the French.
Although the Six Nations officially remained neutral, many in the Iroquois Confederacy also allied with the French. The following year, French troops lost Quebec, crippling their military strength. The loss of French military support temporarily calmed tensions between Native Americans and settlers in western Virginia.
In the summer ofPontiac, an Ottawa chief led raids on key British forts. Shawnee chief Keigh-tugh-qua, or Cornstalk, led similar attacks on western Virginia settlements in present-day Greenbrier County.
However, many land speculators such as George Washington violated the proclamation by claiming vast acreage in western Virginia. The next five years were relatively peaceful on the frontier. With the frontier again open, settlers flooded into western Virginia and the speculators made small fortunes in rent on the lands they had acquired.
Battle of Point Pleasant The Shawnee had never given up their claims to western Virginia and interpreted the rapid settlement as acts of aggression. One of the worst atrocities of the conflict was the murder of several family members of Mingo chief Tah-gah-jute, who had been baptized under the English name Logan.
Logan, who had previously lived peacefully with the settlers, killed at least 13 western Virginians that summer in revenge.
Dunmore drew up a plan to trap the Shawnee between two armies. The governor personally led the northern army while land speculator Andrew Lewis led a smaller force from the south. After the battle, which resulted in significant losses on both sides, the Shawnee retreated to protect their settlements in the Scioto Valley in present-day Ohio.
The Battle of Point Pleasant eliminated Native Americans as a force on the frontier for the first three years of the American Revolutionary War, which began in Aprilclearing the way for peaceful settlement of the region.
When the Revolutionary War began, many American soldiers who had previously served in the British army fought for the Continental Army. Native Americans remained generally neutral for the first two years of the war.
By the end ofthe treaty had fallen apart and Native Americans began randomly attacking settlements.The American Indian Wars (or Indian Wars) is the collective name for the various armed conflicts fought by European governments and colonists, and later the United States government and American settlers, against various American Indian heartoftexashop.com conflicts occurred within the United States and Canada from the time of the earliest colonial .
Iroquois Location. The original homeland of the Iroquois was in upstate New York between the Adirondack Mountains and Niagara Falls. Through conquest and migration, they gained control of most of the northeastern United States and eastern Canada.
The Relations between Native Americans and Colonists There are many reasons Native Americans and European Colonists did not have a good relationship. The reason for conflict between Colonist and Indians was due to .
Wappinger Location. East side of the Hudson River between the Bronx and Rhinebeck extending east to the crest of the Taconic Mountains on the border between New York and Connecticut.
Yet in New France, the major reason of conflict between the Indians and French colonists were due to trade disputes and alliances. In English and Dutch regions of colonization war broke out between the Indians and Europeans due . The first meetings between settlers and Native Americans would follow the same course in almost every European settlement along the East Coast.
The two groups would meet as friends. They would.