Looking for Strategies and Activities? However, the question of how the content is to be presented in a language classroom must still be addressed. In this section we will examine a Content-Based Instruction approach to language teaching, and how it can be used in the classroom. Content-Based Instruction is an approach to language teaching that focuses not on the language itself, but rather on what is being taught through the language; that is, the language becomes the medium through which something new is learned.
Brain-based learning[ edit ] Differentiation is rooted and supported by literature and research about the brain. Evidence suggests that, by instructing through multiple learning pathways, more " dendritic pathways of access" are created.
When more regions of the brain store data about a subject, there is more interconnection and cross-referencing of data from multiple storage areas in response to a single cue, meaning one has learned rather than memorized. This information is stored temporarily, and the brain decides what to do with the acquired data.
The more of these stimuli that are activated, the more impact the data has on the brain. He argues that students would be better served if teachers could teach in a number of ways and learning could be assessed through a variety of means.
Learning preferences extends these ideas by effectively instructing a larger number of students to encourage the development of the less preferred style. Pre-assessment[ edit ] An important part of differentiated instruction and assessment is determining what students already know so as not to cover material students have mastered, or use methods that would be ineffective Content based and task based instruction students.
These are assessments for learning and include diagnostic or pre-assessments that the teacher uses to help guide instruction and benefit each learner. Pre-assessments should be conducted several weeks before the unit of study and should not be graded.
Both of these types of pre-assessment are used to design student tasks, particularly when a student might require support, enrichment, or have different learning styles, intelligence, or interests.
The goals of differentiated instruction are to develop engaging tasks that challenge and enhance learning for each student. Instructional activities are flexible and based and evaluated on content, process, product, and learning environment.
Assessments should be used as a tool to create clear, and meaningful instruction that guides each student towards challenging but not frustrating activities. Ongoing assessment[ edit ] Assessment is the process of gathering information from a variety of sources such as assignments, teacher observations, class discussions, and tests and quizzes.
This information can be gathered through diagnostic pre-assessmentsformativeand summative assessmentsas well as Individual Education Plans, Ontario Student Records, student interest surveys, and multiple intelligence or learning style inventories.
Formative assessments are used during a unit to provide understanding about what the student is learning, and continually guide instructional decisions. All these ongoing assessments help the teacher know students and their needs so they can select effective teaching and learning strategies and interventions that maximize student achievement.
Consistent program review and diagnosis of whole-class and individual student responses not only provides ongoing feedback to enhance teaching and learning for teachers but students and parents as well.
Students must be assessed based on a standard rather than the level of assigned work. A student who struggles in a particular subject may be given an assignment geared toward their abilities to help them learn.
They may do well at the adjusted work they are given. That does not mean they should be given the same grade for their work, as the child who does not get an adjustment assignment. Content[ edit ] The content of lessons may be differentiated based on what students already know.
The most basic content of a lesson should cover the standards of learning set by the district or state. Some students in a class may be completely unfamiliar with the concepts in a lesson, some students may have partial mastery of the content - or display mistaken ideas about the content, and some students may show mastery of the content before the lesson begins.
Students with partial mastery may be asked to complete tasks in the application, analysis and evaluation areas, and students who have high levels of mastery may be asked to complete tasks in evaluation and synthesis.
When teachers differentiate content, they may adapt what they want students to learn or how students access the knowledge, understanding, and skills Anderson, In these instances, educators are not varying student objectives or lowering performance standards for students.
They use different texts, novels, or short stories at a reading level appropriate for each individual student. Teachers can use flexible groups and have students assigned to like groups listening to audiobooks or accessing specific internet sources.
Students could have a choice to work in pairs, groups, or individually, but all students are working towards the same standards and objectives. Understanding by Design[ edit ] Understanding by Design UbD is an educational strategy that may be used to inform content in a differentiated classroom.
Combining these two educational theories may allow educators to simultaneously "craft powerful curriculum in a standards-dominated era and ensure academic success for the full spectrum of learners.
This stage of differentiation allows students to learn based either on what method is easiest for them to gain knowledge, or what may challenge them most: Information may be presented in multiple ways by the teacher, and may be based on any available methods or materials.
Many teachers use areas of Multiple Intelligences to provide learning opportunities. The grouping practices must be flexible, as groups change with regard to the need that must be addressed.
Regardless of whether the differentiation of instruction is based upon student readiness, interests, or needs, the dynamic flow of grouping and regrouping is one of the foundations of differentiated instruction. It is important for a differentiated classroom to allow some students to work alone, if this is their best modality for a particular task.Evidence-based Practices.
Icon indicates practices with newly developed content () on AFIRM. Select the practice to access these modules and . Assessment-based Instruction Aliya T. Diaab AET/ May 23, Dr. Sara Barry Assessment-based Instruction The intent of this paper is to discuss assessment based instruction, how it has changed over the last 20 years, how it has improved instruction, and what may be the anticipated challenges using this type of instruction in future goals.
Task-Based Instruction - Volume 18 - Peter Skehan. In the last twenty years or so, language teaching has changed to incorporate a higher proportion of meaning-based activities, in contrast to the era in which form was primary and a concern for meaning only followed the .
Mathematics Glossary» Glossary Print this page. Addition and subtraction within 5, 10, 20, , or Addition or subtraction of two whole numbers with whole number answers, and with sum or minuend in the range , , , or , respectively. Authentic Instruction and Learning Similar to performance or authentic assessment is the term authentic learning and instruction.
Although this term refers to instruction and learning, it is appropriate to discuss it within the framework.
It has strong connections to project work, task-based learning and a holistic approach to language instruction and has become particularly popular within the state school secondary (11 - 16 years old) education sector.