It is believed to have had a divine origin and sanction.
Al-Akhdam In Yemen there exists a hereditary caste, the African -descended Al-Akhdam who are kept as perennial manual workers. Estimates put their number at over 3.
Caste system in Africa Various sociologists have reported caste systems in Africa. In other cases, such as the Nupe of Nigeria, the Beni Amer of East Africa, and the Tira Caste system Sudan, the exclusionary principle has been driven by evolving social factors.
They have been also referred to as the bard caste. The Osu caste is determined by one's birth into a particular family irrespective of the religion practised by the individual. Once born into Osu caste, this Nigerian person is an outcast, shunned and ostracized, with limited opportunities or acceptance, regardless of his or her ability or merit.
Obinna discusses how this caste system-related identity and power is deployed within government, Church and indigenous communities. The Songhai economy was based on a caste system. The most common were metalworkers, fishermen, and carpenters.
Lower caste participants consisted of mostly non-farm working immigrants, who at times were provided special privileges and held high positions in society.
At the top were noblemen and direct descendants of the original Songhai people, followed by freemen and traders.
|Keep Exploring Britannica||Varna s It is essential to distinguish between large-scale and small-scale views of caste society, which may respectively be said to represent theory and practice, or ideology and the existing social reality. On the large scale, contemporary students of Hindu society recall an ancient fourfold arrangement of socioeconomic categories called the varnas, which is traced back to an oral tradition preserved in the Rigveda dating perhaps from between and bce.|
|Caste system in India - Wikipedia||The Spanish Colonial Casta System The Casta system of colonial Spain determined a persons social importance in old Mexico, and the church and government records of the times used over one-hundred diffrent terms to describe diffrent racial categories. The names Peninsular, Criollo, Indio and Negra describe persons of "pure" racial ancestry, whereas names such as Mestizo, Mulatto, and Zambo, in addition to many other terms, describe the "mixed-blood" children resulting from inter-racial marriages.|
These groups have been described as inferior, deprived of all political power, have a specific occupation, are hereditary and sometimes despised by others. Richter illustrates caste system in Ivory Coastwith six sub-caste categories.
Unlike other parts of the world, mobility is sometimes possible within sub-castes, but not across caste lines. Farmers and artisans have been, claims Richter, distinct castes.
Certain sub-castes are shunned more than others. For example, exogamy is rare for women born into families of woodcarvers. The Mande class system regards the jonow slaves as inferior.
In various parts of West Africa, Fulani societies also have class divisions. Other castes include Griots, Forgerons, and Cordonniers.
Castes appeared among the Malinke people no later than 14th century, and was present among the Wolof and Soninke, as well as some Songhay and Fulani populations, no later than 16th century. Tamari claims that wars, such as the Sosso-Malinke war described in the Sunjata epic, led to the formation of blacksmith and bard castes among the people that ultimately became the Mali empire.
As West Africa evolved over time, sub-castes emerged that acquired secondary specializations or changed occupations. Endogamy was prevalent within a caste or among a limited number of castes, yet castes did not form demographic isolates according to Tamari.
Social status according to caste was inherited by off-springs automatically; but this inheritance was paternal. That is, children of higher caste men and lower caste or slave concubines would have the caste status of the father.
Albert in claimed that the societies in Central Africa were caste-like social stratification systems. These groups were largely endogamous, exclusionary and with limited mobility. Along with the Tumal and Yibir, they are collectively known as sab. Examples of such caste systems, he claims, are to be found in Ethiopia in communities such as the Gurage and Konso.
He then presents the Dime of Southwestern Ethiopia, amongst whom there operates a system which Todd claims can be unequivocally labelled as caste system. The Dime have seven castes whose size varies considerably.
Each broad caste level is a hierarchical order that is based on notions of purity, non-purity and impurity. It uses the concepts of defilement to limit contacts between caste categories and to preserve the purity of the upper castes.
These caste categories have been exclusionary, endogamous and the social identity inherited. At the top of this hierarchy were the Kafa, followed by occupational groups including blacksmiths Qemmoweavers Shammanobards Shattopotters, and tanners Manno.
In this hierarchy, the Manjo were commonly referred to as hunters, given the lowest status equal only to slaves. Though the Wata today speak the Oromo languagethey have traditions of having previously spoken another language before adopting Oromo.This article is a chapter from the book, "Swami Vivekananda On India and Her Problems".This book (Code: AVE) can be purchased from Advaita Ashrama..
CASTE PROBLEM IN INDIA "I have a message for the world, which I will deliver without fear and care for the future. These girls, who belong to the Untouchable caste, make dung patties which are used for fuel and heat by members of all the castes.
This job was considered so unclean that other castes did not associate with the members of society that performed it. India's caste system is among the world's oldest forms of surviving social stratification.
The BBC explains its complexities. The system which divides Hindus into rigid hierarchical groups based. Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a lifestyle which often includes an occupation, status in a hierarchy, customary social interaction, and exclusion.
It is an extreme evolution of a system of legally-entrenched social classes, also endogamous and hereditary, such as that of feudal Europe. Many Westerners have heard of India’s caste system, but a thorough understanding of its ins and outs is still relatively uncommon.
The following sections reveal the nitty-gritty of the caste system. Broadly speaking, a caste system is a process of placing people in occupational groups. It has. These girls, who belong to the Untouchable caste, make dung patties which are used for fuel and heat by members of all the castes.
This job was considered so unclean that other castes did not associate with the members of society that performed it.