Abstract This lab was done to test for macromolecules consisting of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids by using specific reagents to test for each. The result would bring out a specific color change in the macromolecule.
Definition[ edit ] Synthetic biology is seen differently by biologists and engineers. Originally seen as part of biology, in recent years the role of electrical and chemical engineering has become more important.
For example, one description designates synthetic biology as "an emerging discipline that uses engineering principles to design and assemble biological components".
The functional aspects of this definition are rooted in molecular biology and biotechnology. As usage of the term has expanded, synthetic biology was recently defined as the artificial design and engineering of biological systems and living organisms for purposes of improving applications for industry or biological research.
Synthetic biology has Biology lab report testing for macromolecules been divided into two different approaches. Top down synthetic biology involves using metabolic and genetic engineering techniques to impart new functions to living cells.
Bottom up synthetic biology involves creating new biological systems in vitro by bringing together 'non-living' biomolecular components,  often with the aim of constructing an artificial cell. Biological systems are thus assembled module-by-module.
Cell-free protein expression systems are often employed,    as are membrane-based molecular machinery. The work on restriction nucleases not only permits us easily to construct recombinant DNA molecules and to analyze individual genes, but also has led us into the new era of synthetic biology where not only existing genes are described and analyzed but also new gene arrangements can be constructed and evaluated.
Biomolecular engineering includes approaches that aim to create a toolkit of functional units that can be introduced to present new technological functions in living cells.
Genetic engineering includes approaches to construct synthetic chromosomes for whole or minimal organisms. Biomolecular design refers to the general idea of de novo design and additive combination of biomolecular components. Each of these approaches share a similar task: Due to the complexity of natural biological systems, it would be simpler to rebuild the natural systems of interest from the ground up; In order to provide engineered surrogates that are easier to comprehend, control and manipulate.
Enabling technologies[ edit ] Several novel enabling technologies were critical to the success of synthetic biology. Concepts include standardization of biological parts and hierarchical abstraction to permit using those parts in synthetic systems.
Measurements under multiple conditions are needed for accurate modeling and computer-aided-design CAD. DNA and gene synthesis[ edit ] Main articles: Artificial gene synthesis and Synthetic genomics Driven by dramatic decreases in costs of oligonucleotide "oligos" synthesis, the sizes of DNA constructions from oligos have increased to the genomic level.
Craig Venter Instituteconstructed and patented a synthetic genome of a novel minimal bacterium, Mycoplasma laboratorium and were working on getting it functioning in a living cell.
Church 's and Anthony Forster's synthetic cell projects. It was described as "the most important innovation in the synthetic biology space in nearly 30 years".
Synthetic biologists use DNA sequencing in their work in several ways. First, large-scale genome sequencing efforts continue to provide information on naturally occurring organisms. This information provides a rich substrate from which synthetic biologists can construct parts and devices.
Second, sequencing can verify that the fabricated system is as intended.
Third, fast, cheap, and reliable sequencing can facilitate rapid detection and identification of synthetic systems and organisms. Tools can send proteins to specific regions of the cell and to link different proteins together.
The interaction strength between protein partners should be tunable between a lifetime of seconds desirable for dynamic signaling events up to an irreversible interaction desirable for device stability or resilient to harsh conditions.
In addition it is necessary to regulate protein-protein interactions in cells, such as with light using light-oxygen-voltage-sensing domains or cell-permeable small molecules by chemically induced dimerization. These components may alter the signalling capability of the modeling module.
In the case of ultrasensitive modules, the sensitivity contribution of a module can differ from the sensitivity that the module sustains in isolation. Synthetic biology benefits from better models of how biological molecules bind substrates and catalyze reactions, how DNA encodes the information needed to specify the cell and how multi-component integrated systems behave.
Multiscale models of gene regulatory networks focus on synthetic biology applications. Simulations can model all biomolecular interactions in transcriptiontranslationregulation and induction of gene regulatory networks.
One desire of scientists creating synthetic biological circuits is to be able to control the transcription of synthetic DNA in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary branch of biology and engineering.. The subject combines disciplines from within these domains, such as biotechnology, genetic engineering, molecular biology, molecular engineering, systems biology, membrane science, biophysics, chemical and biological engineering, electrical and computer engineering, control engineering and evolutionary biology.
Transcript of Lab 3 - Identifying Macromolecules +/- Test Lugol's Test for Starch Sudan Test for Lipids Blot Test for Lipids The Experiment! Lab #3 +/- Test Benedict's Test for Reducing Sugars Biuret Test for Protein By Angela, Carl, Jessica, and Megan Identifying Macromolecules The Introduction 4 Macromolecules.
Honors Biology students experiment with different unknown solutions to figure out what nutrients they are made out of. Using indicator tests for glucose, starch, protein and lipid, this can serve as a good introduction to living organisms and their functions and characteristics in real life.
Testing Food for Biological Macromolecules/Nutrients Alicia Y. Zheng B Block Honors Biology Mr. Quick The Webb Schools By using various chemicals known to test for specific macromolecules (Benedict's test for glucose, iodine for starch, Biuret for protein, and Sudan III for fat), students will be able to identify the components of 10 different unknown solutions.
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