A considerable amount of the North African coastal strip Ottoman Art and Science The Ottomans were known for their achievements in art, science and medicine. Istanbul and other major cities throughout the empire were recognized as artistic hubs, especially during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. Some of the most popular forms of art included calligraphy, painting, poetry, textiles and carpet weaving, ceramics and music. Ottoman architecture also helped define the culture of the time.
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European states initiated efforts at this time to curb Ottoman control of the traditional overland trade routes between East Asia and Western Europe, which started with the Silk Road. Western European states began to avoid the Ottoman trade monopoly by establishing their own maritime routes to Asia through new discoveries at sea.
The Portuguese discovery of the Cape of Good Hope in initiated a series of Ottoman-Portuguese naval wars in the Indian Ocean throughout the 16th century.
This had serious negative consequences at all levels of Ottoman society. The expansion of Muscovite Russia under Ivan IV — into the Volga and Caspian region at the expense of the Tatar khanates disrupted the northern pilgrimage and trade routes. A highly ambitious plan to counter this conceived by Sokollu Mehmed PashaGrand Vizier under Selim IIin the shape of a Don-Volga canal begun Junecombined with an attack on Astrakhan, failed, the canal being abandoned with the onset of winter.
Henceforth the Empire returned to its existing strategy of utilizing the Crimean Khanate as its bulwark against Russia. The Crimean Khanate continued to invade Eastern Europe in a series of slave raids and remained a significant power in Eastern Europe and a threat to Muscovite Russia in particular until the end of the 17th century.
In southern Europe, a coalition of Catholic powers, led by Philip II of Spainformed an alliance to challenge Ottoman naval strength in the Mediterranean.
Their victory over the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto was a startling blow to the image of Ottoman invincibility. However, historians today stress the symbolic and not the strictly military significance of the battle, for within six months of the defeat a new Ottoman fleet of some sail including eight modern galleasses  had been built, with the shipyards of Istanbul turning out a new ship every day at the height of the construction.
In discussions with a Venetian minister, the Ottoman Grand Vizier commented: The Battle of Lepanto was far more damaging to the Ottoman navy in sapping experienced manpower than the loss of ships, which were rapidly replaced.
The stalemate was caused by a stiffening of the Habsburg defences  and reflected simple geographical limits: It also reflected the difficulties imposed on the Empire by the need to support two separate fronts: Ottoman wars in Europeand the other against a rival Islamic state, the Safavids of Persia see: Ottoman wars in Near East.
Changes in European military tactics and weaponry in the military revolution caused the Sipahi cavalry to lose military relevance. The Long War against Austria — created the need for greater numbers of infantry equipped with firearms.Osman's Dream: The History of the Ottoman Empire [Caroline Finkel] on heartoftexashop.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
The definitive history of the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire was one of the largest and most influential empires in world history.
Its reach extended to three continents and it survived for more than six centuries/5(62). During this period threats to the Ottoman Empire were presented by the traditional foe—the Austrian Empire—as well as by a new foe—the rising Russian Empire. Certain areas of the Empire, such as Egypt and Algeria, became independent in all but name, and later came under the influence of .
Including over eighty illustrations, textboxes, and maps, it is an essential resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate, courses on the history of the Ottoman Empire, the Middle East, Islamic history, and the history of Eastern heartoftexashop.coms: 5.
May 25, · the history of the ottoman empire (full documentary). thanks for watching. history life discovery science technology tech learning education national nature geographic earth planet channel.
Ottoman Empire: Ottoman Empire, empire created by Turkish tribes that grew to be one of the most powerful states in the world in the 15th and 16th centuries.
The Ottoman Empire (/ ˈ ɒ t ə m ə n /; Ottoman Turkish: دولت عليه عثمانیه , Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye, literally "The Exalted Ottoman State"; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.